The Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Tatarstan together with scientists from TatNIISH prepared the tips for gardeners planting fruit trees.
For planting, it is recommended to use seedlings of zoned apple varieties: Grushovka Moscovskaya, Iyulskoe Chernenko, Solntsedar, Volzhskaya Krasavitca, Tenkovskaya, Osennee Polosatoe, Zhigulevskoe, Anis Alyi, Renet Tatarsky, Antonovka vulgaris, Anis polosaty, Bashkirsky Krasavec.
Pits are dug with a diameter of 80-100 cm and a depth of 60-80 cm. For spring planting, pits are prepared in fall. After planting, the root neck of the seedling should be 5-6 cm above the soil level. They make a hole, pour 2-3 buckets of water into it. When water is absorbed into the soil, the hole is mulched with peat, humus, rotted manure, dry soil, grass, straw (5-10 cm).
You have to place plants in order to not interfere with the outflow of cold air in winter, spring and autumn, and do not obscure each other.
In Tatarstan it is recommended to use seedlings of zoned cherry varieties: Krasa Tatarii, Zarya Tatariya, Shakirovskaya, Trouzhennica Tatarii, Pamyat Sakharova, Sevastyanovskaya, Obilnaya.
Cherry seedlings are planted on the northwestern, western and southwestern slopes in the middle and upper parts of hills. Cherry fruits well on ordinary, leached and carbonate black earth, dark gray forest, brown-gray forest soils, located on heavy, medium, light loam, light clay. Cherry grows on both slightly acidic soils and slightly alkaline (pH 6.5-7).
The distance between the cherry rows is 4-5 m. For planting, one-year and two-year-old grafted seedlings and two-year-old root crops are used. In grafted seedlings, the root neck should be 4-5 cm above the soil level after planting. Root can be at the soil level. Cherry reacts negatively to a recessed landing: it does not form growth, poorly develops the leaf apparatus, suffers from gumming and frost.
Dig holes with a diameter of 60-80 cm and a depth of 50 cm in autumn. In this case, the upper layer of soil is folded in one direction, the lower - in the other. In the spring, after planting and watering (2 buckets), the soil around the seedling is mulched (sprinkled) with loose soil, peat or humus to preserve moisture.
For planting in the conditions of Tatarstan, it is recommended to use seedlings of zoned plum varieties: the Sverkhrannyaya, Sineokaya, Renklod tenkovsky, Volzhanka, Pamyat Khasanova, Kazanskaya, Rakitovaya, and Tenkovskaya Golubka.
Plum is planted on gentle, flat slopes of the north-western, western and south-western direction, protected from strong and cold winds with sufficient accumulation of snow in winter and good moisture in the summer. Plum grows better on fertile neutral or slightly acidic (pH 6.5-7.0) soils with sufficient moisture capacity and breathability; light loamy, dark gray forest, dark brown forest, black soil.
Plum seedlings are planted within 3-5 m. The distance between rows is 4-5 m. For planting, choose standard seedlings (grafted - one-two year old, root-growing - two-three year old).
For planting, dig holes with a diameter of 60-80 cm and a depth of 50 cm. Pits are prepared for spring planting in fall. After planting, the root neck should be 3-5 cm above the soil level, as the soil inside the pit gradually settles. Make a hole around the seedling and pour two buckets of water. The hole should be mulched with humus, peat or loose dry soil. In dry weather, watering is repeated 2-3 times.
Apple tree, cherry and plum - plants are mainly cross-pollinated. Pollination is carried out only by insects - bees and bumblebees. Therefore, to obtain a good harvest, it is necessary to have several mutually pollinated varieties (at least 2-3). Self-made varieties of cherries and plums do not need pollinators. Groundwater should be located no closer than 2-2.5 m from the soil surface.
The soil in the trunk circles is kept in a loose and weed-free state. In the first three years after planting, herbicides are not used. Digging is carried out in
early spring and autumn. In the soil of medium fertility in the spring, 20 g of urea is applied, in the fall - 1-2 kg of organic fertilizers, 30 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate. With a lack of moisture in the soil, 4-5 waterings (2-3 buckets each) are made during the growing season. It is not recommended to pour water on the root neck.
Observing all these simple conditions, everyone will be able to grow a rich and environmentally friendly crop!
Proven seedlings of zoned varieties can be purchased at the Tatar Scientific Institute of Agriculture. From today, the sale of seedlings of apple, pear, plum, raspberries, black and red currants has begun. For all questions before May 1, you can pre-consult by calling 8-960-054-22-81. Address: Kazan, Orenburgskyi tract, 48.
For reference: varieties of apple trees bred at the Tatar Research Institute of Agriculture are on sale:
The fruits of the variety "Zaryanka Tatarstana" are medium size. The main color is greenish-white with pink blurry and bright red strokes of a blush on most of the fruit. The flesh is white, tender, loose, fine-grained, juicy. The taste of the variety "Zaryanka Tatarstana" is sweet and sour, very good, with a pleasant aroma. The early maturity and yield of the variety is high. Apples of the variety "Zaryanka Tatarstana" winter consumption period, the fruits are stored until March.
The Kamskaya apple-tree is winter-hardy, scab infestation, moth damage and mothworm damage are average, resistance to drought and heat is average. The resistance of flowers to spring frosts is weak. A new variety of apple trees is moderately affected by scab. The fruits do not crumble, they are stored longer, better to taste. The fruits are small, medium one-dimensional.
The apple tree variety Chudnoye is a dwarf in nature. The growth of trees is up to 1.5 m. One apple tree in the garden is enough to provide the family with beautiful summer apples. A small plant that hangs to the ground with bizarre branches can surprise with a chic crop of green, slightly tanned apples. They have an almost sweet taste, juicy, dense, fine-grained pulp and a delicate aroma. Apples are stored for at least a month without losing their consumer qualities.
The fruits of the apple variety “Tenkovskaya” are medium and large, weighing 150 g, of medium uniformity, in shape are onions, slightly ribbed. The color is golden yellow with a bright pink striped blush on a smaller part of the fruit. The subcutaneous points are small, gray, faint, few of them. The pulp is light yellow, dense, prickly, fine-grained, very juicy. The taste is sweet and sour with a strong aroma. Resistance to frost is high.
In the Renet Povolzhya apple tree, the fruits are small, weighing 80–100 g, aligned, rounded conical in shape, widely ribbed. The skin is relatively dense, smooth, light yellow, with a faint blurry reddish blush on the smaller part of the fetus. The subcutaneous points are numerous, bright, large, faintly visible. The pulp is white, slightly greenish, juicy, dense, fine-grained, aromatic. The taste is very good, sweet and sour, dessert. Fruits contain up to 18 mg% vitamin C.
The fruits of the variety "Renet Tatarsky" of medium size. The main color is greenish-cream or light green, the integument is a pink uneven blush on the smaller part of the fetus with specks and intermittent stripes. The pulp is white or slightly greenish, juicy, medium density, sweet and sour, good taste, with a honey aroma. The variety is winter-hardy, slightly affected by scab, medium-sized.